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Japanese Native Breeds

Misaki Horse
This breed has it origins in Miyazaki Prefecture. The modern herd of 88 animals now ranges on the cape of Toi. They average 12.2 to 13 hands (130 – 135 cm) in height. They first appear in history in 1697 when the Akizuki family of the Takanabe Clan took animals then grazing wild under its protection and created a stud farm. The system was based on giving the breeding stock full freedom and rounding them up once a year presumably to select horses for training and to check on health as well as perhaps castrate males thought unfit for breeding. The same system is used today; once a year animals are corralled at which time inoculations are given and the animals sprayed or dipped to eliminate insect pests. This breed has been designated a National Natural Treasure and the herd has become the focus of tourism.

Tokara Horse
These horses which are today found in several natural parks in Kagoshima Prefecture are the descendents of two dozen native horses brought to Kyushu from Kikai Shima about 1890. The breed was bred on Tokara Island and at one time was quite numerous throughout the Kagoshima region. However, the numbers decreased drastically during World War II and the breed was preserved only by strenuous efforts. The resulting horses have, under more care and selective breeding, become larger than the original which stood some times only 11 hands (115 cm) at the withers. In an attempt to preserve the breed in a near original form a number of animals have been taken to Nakanoshima in the Tokara island where they range freely during the year and are rounded up for pest extermination, inoculation and veterinary treatment once a year. The breed has been designated a Prefectural Natural Treasure. The are today 116 head of the Tokara breed.

Miyako Horse
Miyako jima has been long noted for horse breeding and the Miyako breed goes to at least the 13th century. Until 1960, when a motor road was constructed the Miyako horse was the major form of transportation on the island. In 1907, a number of larger horses of European and American origin were introduced and the average size of the breed increased to as much as 13.3 hands (140 cm). The original breed seldom grew taller than 11 hands (115 cm) and in modern times efforts are being made to restore the breed to its original form. The herd of 21 has become a tourist attraction and is often used for instructional purposes in the local high school. This breed also has been designated as a Prefectural Natural Treasure.

Hokkaido Washu
Also known as Dosanko, this breed is descended from several local breeds imported from Tohoku in the 15th century when Japanese immigration to Hokkaido began. Today there are about 2,928 Hokkaido horses. Most of them are allowed to roam freely in large grazing areas during most of the year, being rounded up for pest control and treatment once a year. Others are being raised on farms under more controlled conditions. This breed is somewhat larger than many Japanese local breeds, standing from 12.2 to 13 hands (130 – 135 cm) at the withers. They are extremely hardy and strong and can survive and even thrive under very servere conditions. Today they are used for trail riding, packing and harness. Many Hokkaido Washu are natural pacers.

Noma Horse
The smallest of Japanese local breeds is the Noma horse, native to the Noma region of Imabari in Ehime Prefecture. It stands only 10.3 hands (110 cm). It is said that in the 17th century Lord Hisamatsu of Matsuyama Han charged local farmers with the breeding of horses. The smallest of these, the ancestors of the present breed, were particularly useful as packhorses on steep mountainsides and on remote islands. There are today 47 Noma horses being kept by several stud farms in the region. They are used as riding horses for children and as subjects of study in local schools.

Kiso Horse
There are records of horses being raised systematically in the Kiso region of Nagano Prefecture as early as the 6th century. The region was able to produce, according to legends, 10,000 cavalry mounts for Kiso Yoshinaka’s army. The Kiso horse is medium sized, standing about 13 hands (135 cm). During the Meiji Era, Kiso horses were crossbred with many western breeds and the pure stain virtually disappeared. The breed is being preserved in the region centering on Kaida mura in Kiso County, Nagano Prefecture. There are today 117 Kiso horses, which are often seen in processions in local festivals. They are also used as riding horses.

Taishu Horse
This breed developed in the steep and hilly country of Tsushima in Nagasaki Prefecture where horse breeding was known as early as the 8th century. This medium-sized horse which stands about 12 hands (125 cm) was particularly useful as a packhorse in rough country and was also used for timber haulage. It is said to be a calm and easily handled horse. A picture of the Taishu Horse being ridden by a farm woman often symbolizes its calm disposition. The remaining 79 Taishu horses have become an object of interest for tourists.

Yonaguni Horse
This native breed was developed in Okinawa on the island of Yonaguni. The breed is small, standing about 11 hands (115 cm). Two small herds of about 108 horses remain on the island ranging free and are rounded up once a year for inspection, removal of pests and inoculation. It is interesting that the people of this island developed a special type of bridle called omogui, which required only a single rein for control. Today the horses are used for instructional purposes in local schools and for recreational riding.

Complete List
Aegidienberger Akhal Teke Albanian Altai Alter Real
American Cream Draft American Creme and White American Paint Horse American Quarter Horse American Saddlebred
American Walking Pony Andalusian Andravida Anglo-Arabian Anglo-Kabarda
Appaloosa Appendix Araappaloosa Arabian Ardennes
Argentine Criollo Ariegeois Asturian Australian Brumby Australian Stock Horse
Avelignese Pony Azteca Balearic Bali Pony Baluchi
Banker Ban-ei Barb Bardigiano Pony Bashkir
Bashkir Curly Basotho Pony / Basuto Pony Basque Pony Batak Pony Belgian
Bhotia Pony Black Forest Boer Bosnian Pony Boulonnais
Brandenburg Breton Brumby Buckskin Budyonny
Burmese Pony Byelorussian Harness Camargue Campolina Canadian
Carpathian Pony Carthusian Caspian horse Cayuse Cheju
Chilean Corralero Chincoteague Pony Chinese Guoxia Cleveland Bay Clydesdale
Colorado Ranger Horse Connemara Pony Criollo (Uruguay) Crioulo Dales Pony
Danube Dartmoor Pony Deliboz Dole Trotter or Dole Gudbrandsdal Don, Russian Don
Dongola Dülmen Pony Dutch Draft Dutch Warmblood Egyptian
Eriskay Pony Estonian Native Exmoor Pony Falabella Fell Pony
Finnhorse Finnish Fjord horse Florida Cracker Frederiksborg
French Trotter Friesian Galician Pony Galiceno Garrano
Gelderlander Gidran Gotland Pony Groningen Gypsy Vanner horse
Hackney Hackney pony Haflinger Hanoverian Highland Pony
Hokkaido Holsteiner Hucul pony Iberian, encompassing the Andalusian, Alter Real, Lusitano and crosses Icelandic
Irish Draught Irish Horse Java Pony Jutland Kabardian or Kabardin
Karabair Karabakh Kathiawari Kazakh Pony Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse
Kiger Mustang Kiso Kladruber Knabstrup Konik
Kustanair Landais Pony Latvian Harness Horse (Standard and Light Type) Lithuanian Heavy Draft Lipizzan / Lippizzaner
Lusitano Mangalarga / Mangalarga Marchador Manipuri Pony Marwari Maremmana
Misaki Missouri Fox Trotting Horse / Missouri Foxtrotter Miyako Mongolian Morab
Morgan Moyle Mule Mustang Murgese
National Show Horse New Forest Pony New Kirgiz Newfoundland Pony Noma
Noma pony Nonius Horse Nooitgedacht Pony Noriker Noric
Northlands Pony Norwegian Fjord Ob Oldenburg Orlov Trotter
Padang Pony Paint Paso Fino Percheron Peruvian Paso
Pindos Pony Pinia Pintabian Pinto Pleven
Poitevin Polish Konik Pony of the Americas Pottok Przewalski
Pyrenean Tarpan Quarab Quarter Horse Quarter Pony Racking Horse
Rocky Mountain Horse Russian Don Russian Heavy Draft Russian Trotter Sable Island Pony
Saddlebred Salerno Sandalwood Pony Sanhe Schleswiger Heavy Draft
Schwarzwälder Fuchs Selle Francais Shagya / Shagya Arabian Shetland Pony Shire
Single-Footing Horse Skyros Pony Somali Pony Sorraia Soviet Heavy Draft
Spanish Mustang Spanish-Barb Spanish-Norman Spiti Pony Spotted Saddle horse
Standardbred Sudan Country-Bred Suffolk / Suffolk Punch Sumba and Sumbawa Pony Swedish Ardennes
Swedish Warmblood Shagya Taishuh Tarpan Tawleed
Tennessee Walking Horse Tersky Thoroughbred Tiger Horse Timor Pony
Tokara Tori Trakehner Ukrainian Saddle Vladimir Heavy Draft
Viatka Vyatka Waler Walkaloosa Welara Pony
Welsh Pony and Cob Welsh mountain pony (Section A) Welsh Cob (Section D) Wielkopolski Xilingol
Yakut Yili Yonaguni Zebra Zemaituka (Zhumd)
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