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Akhal-Teke history

According to some, the Akhal-Teke have been kept hidden by their tribesmen for years. The area where the breed first appeared, the Turkmenistan desert Kara Kum, is a rocky, flat desert surrounded by mountains. However, others claim that the horses are descendants of the mounts of Mongol raiders of the 13th and 14th century.

The breed is very similar to the Turkoman Horse, bred in neighboring Iran. Some historians believe that the two are different strains of the same breed, and that the incredibly influential Arabian was developed out of this breed.

Tribesmen of Turkmenistan first used the horses for raids, feeding the animals grains and mutton. They selectively bred the horses, keeping records of the pedigrees orally. The horses were called "Argamaks" by the Russians, and were cherished by the nomads.

In 1881, Turkomenistan became part of the Russian Empire. The tribes fought with the tzar, eventually losing. A Russian general, Kuropatkin, who grew to love the horses he had seen while fighting the tribesmen, founded a breeding farm after the war and renamed the horses "Akhal-Tekes," after the Teke Turkmen tribe that lived near the Akhal oasis. The Russians printed the first studbook in 1941, which included 287 stallions and 468 mares.

The Akhal-Teke has had influence on many breeds, including the Thoroughbred through the Byerley Turk (which is thought to be Akhal-Teke), one of the foundation stallions of the breed. The Trakehner has also been influenced by the Akhal-Teke, most notably by the stallion Turkmen-Atti, as has the Russian breeds Don, Budyonny, Karabair, and Karabakh. The Arabian is also thought to have had an influence by the Akhal-Teke, most noteworthy being the Syrian Arabian.

The breed suffered greatly when the Soviet Union required horses to be slaughtered for meat, which however the local Turkmen refused to eat. At one point only 2,000 horses remained and export from the Soviet Union was banned. The government of Turkmenistan now uses the horses as diplomatic presents as well as auctioning a few to raise money for improved horse breeding programs.

In the early 20th century, crossing between the Thoroughbred and the Akhal-Teke took place, aiming to create a faster long-distance racehorse. However, the Anglo Akhal-Tekes were not as resilient as their Akhal-Teke ancestors, and many died due to the harsh conditions of Central Asia. The crossbreeding was ended in 1935, after the 2,600 mile endurance race from Ashkabad to Moscow, when the pure-breds finished in much better condition than the part-breds. The Thoroughbred cross is believed to have been so destructive to the breed that a horse with Thoroughbred ancestors must have 15 generations pass before it can be registered in the studbook. Since 1973, all foals must be blood-typed to be accepted in the stud book in order to protect the purity. A stallion not producing the right type of horse can be removed. The stud book was closed in 1975.

Complete List
Aegidienberger Akhal Teke Albanian Altai Alter Real
American Cream Draft American Creme and White American Paint Horse American Quarter Horse American Saddlebred
American Walking Pony Andalusian Andravida Anglo-Arabian Anglo-Kabarda
Appaloosa Appendix Araappaloosa Arabian Ardennes
Argentine Criollo Ariegeois Asturian Australian Brumby Australian Stock Horse
Avelignese Pony Azteca Balearic Bali Pony Baluchi
Banker Ban-ei Barb Bardigiano Pony Bashkir
Bashkir Curly Basotho Pony / Basuto Pony Basque Pony Batak Pony Belgian
Bhotia Pony Black Forest Boer Bosnian Pony Boulonnais
Brandenburg Breton Brumby Buckskin Budyonny
Burmese Pony Byelorussian Harness Camargue Campolina Canadian
Carpathian Pony Carthusian Caspian horse Cayuse Cheju
Chilean Corralero Chincoteague Pony Chinese Guoxia Cleveland Bay Clydesdale
Colorado Ranger Horse Connemara Pony Criollo (Uruguay) Crioulo Dales Pony
Danube Dartmoor Pony Deliboz Dole Trotter or Dole Gudbrandsdal Don, Russian Don
Dongola Dülmen Pony Dutch Draft Dutch Warmblood Egyptian
Eriskay Pony Estonian Native Exmoor Pony Falabella Fell Pony
Finnhorse Finnish Fjord horse Florida Cracker Frederiksborg
French Trotter Friesian Galician Pony Galiceno Garrano
Gelderlander Gidran Gotland Pony Groningen Gypsy Vanner horse
Hackney Hackney pony Haflinger Hanoverian Highland Pony
Hokkaido Holsteiner Hucul pony Iberian, encompassing the Andalusian, Alter Real, Lusitano and crosses Icelandic
Irish Draught Irish Horse Java Pony Jutland Kabardian or Kabardin
Karabair Karabakh Kathiawari Kazakh Pony Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse
Kiger Mustang Kiso Kladruber Knabstrup Konik
Kustanair Landais Pony Latvian Harness Horse (Standard and Light Type) Lithuanian Heavy Draft Lipizzan / Lippizzaner
Lusitano Mangalarga / Mangalarga Marchador Manipuri Pony Marwari Maremmana
Misaki Missouri Fox Trotting Horse / Missouri Foxtrotter Miyako Mongolian Morab
Morgan Moyle Mule Mustang Murgese
National Show Horse New Forest Pony New Kirgiz Newfoundland Pony Noma
Noma pony Nonius Horse Nooitgedacht Pony Noriker Noric
Northlands Pony Norwegian Fjord Ob Oldenburg Orlov Trotter
Padang Pony Paint Paso Fino Percheron Peruvian Paso
Pindos Pony Pinia Pintabian Pinto Pleven
Poitevin Polish Konik Pony of the Americas Pottok Przewalski
Pyrenean Tarpan Quarab Quarter Horse Quarter Pony Racking Horse
Rocky Mountain Horse Russian Don Russian Heavy Draft Russian Trotter Sable Island Pony
Saddlebred Salerno Sandalwood Pony Sanhe Schleswiger Heavy Draft
Schwarzwälder Fuchs Selle Francais Shagya / Shagya Arabian Shetland Pony Shire
Single-Footing Horse Skyros Pony Somali Pony Sorraia Soviet Heavy Draft
Spanish Mustang Spanish-Barb Spanish-Norman Spiti Pony Spotted Saddle horse
Standardbred Sudan Country-Bred Suffolk / Suffolk Punch Sumba and Sumbawa Pony Swedish Ardennes
Swedish Warmblood Shagya Taishuh Tarpan Tawleed
Tennessee Walking Horse Tersky Thoroughbred Tiger Horse Timor Pony
Tokara Tori Trakehner Ukrainian Saddle Vladimir Heavy Draft
Viatka Vyatka Waler Walkaloosa Welara Pony
Welsh Pony and Cob Welsh mountain pony (Section A) Welsh Cob (Section D) Wielkopolski Xilingol
Yakut Yili Yonaguni Zebra Zemaituka (Zhumd)
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Akhal_Teke".
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